Hot ice

Can we create frozen water above 150 degrees Celsius?


Probably everyone knows that under regular conditions, water turns into ice at 0 degrees Celsius and boils to produce steam at 100 degrees Celsius. By varying pressure or adding additional chemical compounds we are able to shift these temperatures to some extent. New results show that the environment surrounding individual water molecules is another parameter, which can significantly affect these transition temperatures.

Carbon nanotube freezers

Carbon nanotubes are very small, but their inner hollow cavity is even smaller. When you confine water molecules into them they start to show strange behavior. Water molecules were found to remain solid at temperatures up to 151 degrees Celsius. At such temperature they should not even be liquid, but assume a form of water vapor. What is interesting, the presence of water inside of carbon nanotubes can reduce their thermal conductivity five-fold.

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